One of the points I did not make in the book, and should, is that simulation games can serve not only as a practice environment, but also as an evaluation tool. That is, practice in a simulation can be both formative, allowing learners to check their ability, and summative, in that these games can be instrumented to report practice back to a learning management system. Given that random experiences are to be desired, one has to be careful to control the experience by guaranteeing (read: programming) certain contingencies or occurrences, or having canned sequences when used as a test, but there are creative ways to ensure appropriate controls when using simulations as evaluation tools.
Check out Rob Moser's Ph.D. thesis: A methodology for the design of educational computer adventure games, as well. Extended my work prior to the book, with deep analysis.
Ongoing notes about games are now posted in my blog under the ‘games’ category.
The original Quest game was designed to help kids learn to live independently. Originally programmed in HyperCard, it was subsequently ported to the web. While using old technology (CGI), it's playable and still features the original design.
The project management linear scenario in Case Study 3 led to a subsequent project doing a full game (on the same topic!). The Project Management game was the result.
The Serious Games page at Wikipedia has a list of examples with links.
Back to top
A brainstorming guide.
A SME Questionnaire guide.
A Concept Document template.
A Storyboard template.
A learning game design checklist.
Back to top
The Federation of American Scientists, in conjunction with the National Science Foundation and Entertainment Software Association, held a summit on games, the output of which has been created as a site.
An article on the controversy surrounding games for learning. Steven Downes cites Bill Brandon's nice take on it: "Good grief. Can people possibly learn as a result of playing a game? Of course. Can people learn as a result of playing any game? Of course not. If a game is designed to be an environment for learning, people can learn from it if it's a good design. If a game is designed to be an environment for entertainment, people will learn to play the game but not much else. If a game is designed to 'teach' (i.e., to deliver canonical outcomes), nobody should expect far transfer from it."
A great article on the implications of Joseph Campbell's The Hero's Journey for game design.
The eminent Thiagi's Laws of Learning.
Roger Schank & Chip Cleary's Engines For Education hyperbook.
Back to top
Education Arcade - Henry Jenkins and (ex-) MIT folks
North American Simulation And Gaming Association
WaterCooler Games - games with an agenda
Gamasutra - game developer site (where you can find Earnest Adam's excellent Designer's Notebook columns
Back to top
Adams, E. (2004). Designing with gameplay modes and flowboards. San Francisco: Gamasutra.
Aldrich, C. (2004). Simulations and the Future of Learning : An Innovative (and Perhaps Revolutionary) Approach to e-Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Allen, M. (2002). Michael Allen's Guide to E-Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Barrows, H. S. (1986). A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods. Medical Education, 20 (6), 481-486.
Bloom, B. S., & Krathwohl D, R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: Longman, Green.
Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18 (1), 32-41.
Buxton, W.A.S. (1995). Touch, gesture and marking. In R. M. Baecker, J. Grudin, W.A.S. Buxton, & S. Greenberg (Eds.), Readings in human-computer interaction: Toward the year 2000 (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman.
Campbell, J. (1972). The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Campbell, J. (1991). The Power of Myth. New York: Anchor Books.
Carroll, J. M. (1982). The adventure of getting to know a computer. IEEE Computer, 15 (11), 49-58.
Carroll, J. M. (1990). The Nurnberg Funnel: Designing Minimalist Instruction for Practical Computer Skill. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8, 293-332.
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Clarke, A. C. (1984). Profiles of the future: An inquiry into the limits of the possible (Rev ed.). New York: Henry Holt & Co.
Cognition and Technology Group [at Vanderbilt]. (1990). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated cognition. Educational Researcher, 19 (6), 2-10.
Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Conner, M. L. (2004). Learn More Now: 10 Simple Steps to Learning Better, Smarter, and Faster. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Crawford, C. (1990). Lessons from computer game design. In B. Laurel (Ed.), The art of human-computer interface design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Crawford, C. (2003). Chris Crawford on game design. Indianapolis: New Riders.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Denning, S. (2000). The springboard: How storytelling ignites action in knowledge-era organizations . Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Freeman, D. (2004). Creating emotion in games: The craft and art of Emotioneering(TM). Indianapolis: New Riders.
Gagné, R., Briggs, L., & Wager, W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: HBJ College Publishers.
Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gilmore, J. H. (2003). Frontiers of the experience economy. Batten Briefings, August 2003. Charlottesville, VA: Darden Business Publishing.
Goldman, W. (1989). Adventures in the screen trade. New York: Warner.
Hogg, R. (July, 2002). Coming to terms with ICT training. Australian Technology & Business.
Hutchins, E. L., Hollan, J. D., & Norman, D. A. (1986). Direct manipulation interfaces. In S. W. Draper & D. A. Norman (Eds.), User centered system design: New perspectives on human-computer interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Johnson-Laird, P. N., Legrenzi, P., & Legrenzi, M. S. (1972). Reasoning and a sense of reality. British Journal of Psychology , 10, 64-99.
Jonassen, D. H., Howland, J., Moore, J., & Marra, R. M. (2003). Learning to solve problems with technology: A constructivist perspective (2nd ed.) . Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.
Kay, A. (1971). [http://www.smalltalk.org/alankay.html].
Keller, J. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In Reigeluth, C. (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kolb, D. A. (1981). Learning styles and disciplinary differences. In A. W. Chickering (ed.), The modern American college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Laurel, B. (1991). Computers as theatre . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lepper, M. R., & Cordova, D. I. (1992). A desire to be taught: Instructional consequences of intrinsic motivation. Motivation & Emotion , 16 (3), 187-208.
Mager, R. (1975). Preparing instructional objectives (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Lake Publishing Co.
Malone, T. W. (1981). Towards a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Science, 5, 333-370.
McCloud, S. (1993). Understanding comics: The invisible art. New York: Kitchen Sink Press.
Merrill, M.D. (1983). Component display theory. In C. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Moser, R. (2000). A methodology for the design of educational computer adventure games. University of New South Wales Ph.D. thesis.
Muller, M. (1993). PICTIVE: Democratizing the dynamics of the design session. In D. Schuler & A. Namioka (Eds.), Participatory design . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Nielsen, J. (1994). Heuristic evaluation. In J. Nielsen & R. L. Mack (Eds.), Usability inspection methods. New York: Wiley.
Norman, D. A. (1990). The Design of Everyday Things. NY: Doubleday.
Norman, D. A. (1993). Things That Make Us Smart: Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Norman, D. A. (2003). Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books.
O'Driscoll, T. (2003). Proposing an optimal learning architecture for the digital enterprise. Educational Technology , 43 (1), 23-119.
Prensky, M. (2000). Digital game-based learning . New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Reigeluth, C., & Stein, F. (1983). The elaboration theory of instruction. In C. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rollings, A., & Adams, E. (2003). Andrew Rollings and Earnest Adams on game design. Indianapolis: New Riders.
Schank, R., & Cleary, C. (1995). Engines for educatio n. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Shneiderman, B. (1983). Direct manipulation: A step beyond programming languages. IEEE Computer, 16, 57-69.
Singley, M. K., & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The transfer of cognitive skill. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1992). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. In T. Duffy & D. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the technology of instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Stephenson, N. (1996). The diamond age, or a young girl's illustrated primer. New York: Bantam Books.
Thiagarajan, S. (2003). Laws of learning: 14 important principles every trainer should know. [http://www.thiagi.com/laws-of-learning.html].
Tognazzini, B. (1993). Principles, techniques, and ethics of stage magic and their application to human interface design. Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Amsterdam, April.
Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte, E. R. (1997). Visual explanations: Images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Tufte, E. R. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information (2nd ed.). Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (1997). Training Complex Cognitive Skills: A Four-Component Instructional Design Model for Technical Training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Vorhaus, J. (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Beverly Hills, CA: Silman-James.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.), Mind in society . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Back to top